This is the third part of my writing guide for developers. The written word is how we share ideas with each other on the internet. In a blog post, README file or program documentation. This exchange is incredibly important for the software engineering community so we don’t keep reinventing the wheel. And the better writers we are, the easier it is.
Check out the first two instalments if you haven't yet:
In this one, we'll take a look at style.
The Mysterious Affair of Style
As vague as the definition of the term writing style is, it concerns everything that affects how your writing comes across. This is, of course, an extremely wide and highly subjective topic. Take a few books on writing and you’ll end up with hundreds of pages on different aspects of it.
(1) Use the active voice
Many technical writers (myself included) overuse the passive voice. Describing inanimate objects forces our thinking into sentences like these:
- This feature will be implemented in version 1.5.
- That issue was fixed months ago.
- Null is returned when error occurs.
Quite a common sight, aren't they. And while they may express exactly what happened, they are impersonal and sound rigid. The passive voice removes the source of the action out of the sentence. Things happen, but it doesn't say who or what's doing it.
Compare the above with: We implemented this feature in 1.5. I fixed this issue months ago. Returns Null on error. Sounds much more like things move forward. In the active voice, the verb bears much more power. It's direct and clear what happened and who's responsible.
(2) Long sentences
Lots of writing guides recommend against using long sentences. This is good advice, except when you follow it religiously and make each of your sentences roughly the same length. With only short sentences, you’re in danger of making your writing monotonous and giving it an uncomfortable, regular rhythm.
Besides varying rhythm, long sentences work incredibly well in contrast with short ones. They read slower and will make any shorter one stand out in between them. Like this.
The problem with long sentences isn’t their length, but that writers often overcomplicate the structure with parenthetical clauses, lists within lists, three semicolons and god knows what else which may be grammatically correct, but awfully unclear.
Don’t be afraid to write a long sentence when appropriate. But when you need to refer to a dictionary for proper punctuation, it’s probably a good idea to break it down.
(3) Keep an eye on adverbs
Adverbs are words that modify the
meaning of verbs or adjectives in a sentence (that’s the simplified definition).
Not all of them, but many end with
-ly as in mostly, really,
usually, or certainly. Check out these examples:
- Every call to
require('foo')will get exactly the same object returned.
- A file descriptor that is currently open in the parent process.
- The string data that will not work properly on Buffers.
- Bob uses a newly generated cryptographically strong pseudorandom key pair.
And what's the problem with them? Instead of adding a modifier to an imprecise word, it’s better to find a different, more appropriate alternative. Why write really good when you could say great?
The first example could be rewritten to:
- Every call to
require('foo')will get the identical object returned.
And even further, doing away with the passive voice:
- Every call to
require('foo')will return the identical object.
Adverbs often intensify or repeat things that are apparent from the context. Looking at the second example, when a descriptor is open, we can assume that it’s currently open. Properly in the third example intensifies that the string data won’t work on Buffers, but doesn’t add any more information. In the last sentence, can a pseudorandom key pair be strong in any way other than cryptographical?
With this said, using adverbs isn’t always bad and sometimes, combining two words is the best way to say what you want. In such cases your adverbs will add meaning that isn’t imperative from the word itself or apparent from the context around it.
Run your piece through this regex before publishing to see whether you couldn’t tighten it up.
(4) Point of view
The narrative point of view determines the perspective through which you communicate with your readers. It implies the personal pronoun (I, you, (s)he, we) that you’ll be using throughout the piece so you need to pick one before sitting down to write the first draft.
The best one always depends on what sort of document you are working on. Here are your options.
Within non-fiction, the first person narrative mode is limited for stories where you describe what you did or what happened to you. It goes like this:
I did this. Then I installed that. I went there and installed that. And then everything exploded.
You put yourself into the centre of your piece. The writing feels immediate and lets you describe your thinking with ease. The first person works great for blog posts and case studies where you speak from your own experience; not so much for manuals or technical documentation.
Second person narrative is by far the most common in technical writing. With
you as the personal pronoun, you speak to the reader (just as I do to you
now) to instruct or explain.
Open the terminal and you should see a blinking cursor popping up on the screen. If you type on your keyboard, letters will start appearing on the screen.
This mode is direct and informal, and works great for all sorts of documentation, guides and tutorials where the reader learns something or even gets involved.
First person plural
With first person plural,
we can mean either you with someone else (like your
friend or colleague) or you and the reader. The first option is similar to
regular first person, but indicates that you weren’t alone, while the latter
one works a bit like second person.
We need to write the tests first before we proceed to implement the functionality. We’ll open the
tests/parser.jsfile and add the following at the end.
Writing in this mode is also instructional but less direct then the second person. By saying we you hint that you’re doing it with the reader and that can feel a bit more friendly.
In third person you describe what happened to someone else.
It wasn’t as easy for Turing to figure this out in 1936. He proved it using the diagonal method that was invented by Georg Cantor only four decades earlier.
Again, this is great for anecdotes and blogs, but impractical for technical writing.
Referring to your reader in third person, i.e., he/she or one is in my opinion your worst option, whatever you’re writing. Throwing one in once in a while for comical effect is fine, but using it throughout your whole piece sounds stuffy.
Until the next time
Style takes time to develop. Like switching gears when driving a car, it takes take a lot of thinking about in the beginning, but it becomes automatic with enough practice.
My final tip is: leave all of these for when you’ll refactoring your finished draft. Worrying about phrasing when drafting breaks your train of thought, will slow you and even block you from writing anything at all.
The next post in this series will be about structure. Sign up for my newsletter and be the first one to know when it comes out.